Through Egypt runs the River Nile starting from the Great Lakes in the heart of Africa, through northern Sudan where the Ethiopian tributaries collecting rain water flows into its main course.

  • Apart from the Nile Valley, the majority of Egypt's landscape is sandy deserts.
  • Egypt is divided into 4 broad regions:
  - The Western Desert, which occupies almost 2/3 of the total area.
  - The Eastern Desert
  - The Sinai Peninsula
  - Nile Valley & Delta, which is a very populated area.

The Western Desert

Extends from the Nile Valley in the East to the Libyan borders in the west, and from the Mediterranean in the north to Egypt's Southern borders. It is divided into:

- The Northern section: includes the coastal plane, the northern plateau and the Great Depression, Natroun Valley and Baharia Oasis.
- The Southern section: includes Farafra, Kharga, Dakhla, and el-Owainat in the extreme south.

The Eastern Desert 

Extends from the Nile Valley in the West to the Red Sea, Suez Gulf, and Suez Canal in the East, and from Lake Manzala on the Mediterranean in the North to Egypt's southern borders with Sudan in the south. The Eastern Desert is marked with the Eastern Mountains that extend along the Red Sea with peaks that rise to about 3000 feet above sea level.

The Sinai Peninsula

Sinai is shaped like a triangle with its base at the Mediterranean in the North and its tip in the South at Ras Mohammed, the Gulf of Aqaba to the East and the Gulf of Suez and Suez Canal to the west.It is topographically divided into the folling main sections: 
- The Southern Section: is an extremely tough terrain composed of high rise Granite Mountains. Mount Catherine rises about 2640 meters above sea level, which makes it the highest mountain top in Egypt .
- The Central Section: is bounded by the Mediterranean to the North and the At-Teeh plateau to the south. It is a plain area with abundant water resources derived from rain water that flows from southern heights to the central plateau.

The Nile Valley and Delta
Extends from north of the valley to the Mediterranean Sea and is divided into Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt: extending from Wadi Halfa to the south of Cairo and from North Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea.